This page really belongs to
devel/, move it there after a proper
release. Instead, for all users, there should be documentation for installing
without full compilation.
Graphene consists of several components:
- The Library OS itself (a shared library named
libsysdb.so, called the “shim” in our source code)
- The Platform Adaptation Layer, or PAL (a shared library named
- A patched GNU C Library (a set of shared libraries
The build of Graphene implies building at least the first two components. The build of the patched C library is optional but highly recommended for performance reasons. The patched C library is built by default.
Graphene currently only works on the x86_64 architecture. Graphene is currently tested on Ubuntu 16.04 and 18.04 (both server and desktop version), along with Linux kernel versions 3.x/4.x/5.x. We recommend building and installing Graphene on the same host platform. If you find problems with Graphene on other Linux distributions, please contact us with a detailed bug report.
Building without SGX support¶
Run the following command on Ubuntu to install dependencies:
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential autoconf gawk bison
To run tests locally, you also need the python3-pytest package:
sudo apt-get install -y python3-pytest
To build Graphene, in the root directory of Graphene repo, run the following command:
Building with SGX support¶
The build of Graphene with SGX support requires the corresponding SGX software infrastructure to be installed on the system. In particular, the FSGSBASE functionality must be enabled in the Linux kernel, the Intel SGX driver must be running, and Intel SGX SDK/PSW/DCAP must be installed. In the future, when all required SGX infrastructure is upstreamed in Linux and popular Linux distributions, the prerequisite steps will be significantly simplified.
1. Required packages¶
Run the following commands on Ubuntu to install SGX-related dependencies:
sudo apt-get install -y libprotobuf-c-dev protobuf-c-compiler \ libcurl4-openssl-dev # For Ubuntu 18.04 sudo apt-get install -y python3-protobuf # For Ubuntu 16.04 sudo apt install -y python3-pip sudo /usr/bin/pip3 install protobuf
2a. Install the Linux kernel patched with FSGSBASE¶
FSGSBASE is a feature in recent processors which allows direct access to the FS and GS segment base addresses. For more information about FSGSBASE and its benefits, see this discussion. FSGSBASE patchset was merged in 5.9. For older kernels it is available as separate patches.
The following instructions to patch and compile a Linux kernel with FSGSBASE support below are written around Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) with a Linux 5.4 LTS stable kernel but can be adapted for other distros as necessary. These instructions ensure that the resulting kernel has FSGSBASE support and up to date security mitigations.
Clone the repository with patches:
git clone https://github.com/oscarlab/graphene-sgx-driver
Setup a build environment for kernel development following the instructions in the Ubuntu wiki. Clone Linux version 5.4 via:
git clone --single-branch --branch linux-5.4.y \ https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/stable/linux.git cd linux
Apply the provided FSGSBASE patches to the kernel source tree:
git am <graphene-sgx-driver>/fsgsbase_patches/*.patch
The conversation regarding this patchset can be found in the kernel mailing list archives here.
Build and install the kernel following the instructions in the Ubuntu wiki.
After rebooting, verify the patched kernel is the one that has been booted and is running:
Also verify that the patched kernel supports FSGSBASE (the below command must return that bit 2 is set):
LD_SHOW_AUXV=1 /bin/true | grep AT_HWCAP2
After the patched Linux kernel is installed, you may proceed with installations
of other SGX software infrastructure: the Intel SGX Linux driver, the Intel SGX
SDK/PSW, and Graphene itself (see next steps). Note that older versions of
these software packages may not work with recent Linux kernels like 5.4. We
recommend to use commit
b7ccf6f of the Intel SGX Linux Driver for Intel SGX
DCAP and commit
0e71c22 of the Intel SGX SDK/PSW.
2b. Install the Graphene FSGSBASE driver (not for production)¶
If you followed step 2a and installed the patched Linux kernel, skip this step. Otherwise, you will need a Graphene-specific Linux driver that enables the FSGSBASE feature available in recent processors.
This module is a quick-and-dirty hack with dangerous security hole (allows unauthorized local privilege escalation). “Do not use for production” is not a joke. We use it only for testing on very old kernels where the patchset does not apply cleanly.
To install the Graphene FSGSBASE driver, run the following commands:
git clone https://github.com/oscarlab/graphene-sgx-driver cd graphene-sgx-driver make sudo insmod gsgx.ko
3. Generate signing keys¶
A 3072-bit RSA private key (PEM format) is required for signing the manifest. If you don’t have a private key, create it with the following command:
openssl genrsa -3 -out enclave-key.pem 3072
You can either place the generated enclave key in the default path,
Pal/src/host/Linux-SGX/signer/enclave-key.pem, or specify the key’s
location through the environment variable
After signing the application’s manifest, users may ship the application and
Graphene binaries, along with an SGX-specific manifest (
extension), the signature (
.sig extension), and the aesmd init token
.token extension) to execute on another SGX-enabled host.
4. Install the Intel SGX driver and SDK/PSW¶
The Intel SGX Linux SDK and the Intel SGX driver are required to compile and run Graphene on SGX. Download and install them from the official Intel GitHub repositories:
Alternatively, if you want to use the DCAP versions of the SDK and driver, download and install it from:
To build Graphene with Intel SGX support, in the root directory of Graphene repo, run the following command:
Running make SGX=1 sgx-tokens in the test or regression directory
will automatically generate the required manifest signatures (
and EINITTOKENs (
Additional build options¶
- To create a debug build, run make DEBUG=1. This adds debug symbols in all Graphene components, builds them without optimizations, and enables detailed debug logs in Graphene.
- To build with
-Werror, run make WERROR=1.
- To specify custom mirrors for downloading the Glibc source, use make GLIBC_MIRRORS=....
- Each part of Graphene can be built separately in the subdirectories. For example, to build only the Pal component, use make -c Pal.